Friday, 16 January 2015


THE prestige enjoyed by the Austrian artillery in the 19th century was based on historical traditions very accurate and secure.File:Napoléon III et l'Italie - Gerolamo Induno - La bataille de Magenta - 005.jpg

After the battle of Luzzara against Marshal Vendôme (15 August 1702), Prince Eugene of Savoy had taken care of communicating to the Austrian emperor Leopold I: "Your Majesty can well believe that there is not in the world a better artillery than that of which we have. "This statement, , will be confirmed in a few decades later by the authoritative words of the great Frederick II of Prussia who after   the battle of Kolin (18 June 1757): "The 'Austrian artillery, although not supported by the rest of the army, alone is enough to destroy any attacker. "

The uniform

With the replacement of white, common to the whole army, the color brown ('wolfsgrau = gray wolf' in the lyrics),Shades of fawn (Rehbraun) with scarlet cuffs, armbands and would be worn in cloth tunics with dark brown (tobacco) after 1837; that color will remain unchanged until the end of the First World War.

Starting from 1849 the entire army was subjected to a transformation process that, realizing  economies to a military budget chronically deficient.

The gunner of 1859 is  wearing a uniform that is a hybrid between infantry and cavalry. The shako general model in 1850 replaced  the hat  The brass eagle bears its claws the regimental number of white metal of 11 mm in height (the letter 'R' instead of the regiment 'Racchettieri' or razzieri).

The order to the 2nd Army which operates in Italy oredered a  'Kittel' linen tunic instead of the woolen  cloth. The latter is placed in the backpack canvas raw blackened lattice pattern typical of the artillery, which is transported in accordance with the Regulation, on luggage carts batteries. This relief which the infantryman benefit only in mid-June.

This double-breasted coat has two rows of 8 brass buttons (diameter 22 mm.) On which are engraved the symbols of artillery (3 cannonballs superimposed by a muzzle that intersects with a bullet rocket ). Collar, cuffs, bulges behind and threads are red scarlet. Calico lining delo same color as the tunic. The The Kittel de flax, which has two rows of 6 bone buttons white, is of model of the hunters, namely with the rigonfiature behind, and has on the collar shows (such Paroli) of scarlet red.

The light blue pants, unlike the infantry pants are trimmed with scarlet threads along the side seams, and similarly to the pants of the cavalry, have insoles. Pants with Bazzana, height 20 cm in front of and behind 23, is reserved for gunners conductors.

The gray coat mischio general model for foot troops, artillery has a rear slot (buttons with emblem).

All military artillery are distributed media-cavalry boots (without spurs for those that are not mounted).

In Italy the gunner in sealing campaigns is distinguished with difficulty from his fellow soldier of infantry as he leads the sciaccò covered with seat cover and coat slung over his shoulder from the left shoulder to the right hip, and his haversack laying on the opposite side. Only the lack leggings allows the gunner to recognize not fitted by an infantryman with the regimental colors red.

Al 'Vormeister' that covers the degree of under-corporal (black cord on sciaccò and star in white cloth on the two corners of the collar of tunic and Kittel) and is not mounted, it is to point the piece. He is entrusted with the elevation of the piece that door, when it is not mounted, suspended from a string of red wool.

To preserve the uniform, the staff door mounted on a tunic and trousers Bazzana a second seal consists spencer brimless, in cloth of the color of his robe, closed in front by a row of 8 buttons and a copricalzoni gray cavalry, without Bazzana, that buttons sideways through 15 bone buttons blackened.

All gunners unmounted lead to the left side of the NCOs from infantry saber hanging by a strap model by drummer in white leather. In front of the shoulder 'Vormeister' port attribute of its degree, ie a tube into the brass representative piece from 12 pounds, length 10 cm, for the 12 regiments of artillery and grenade to the regiment 'Racchettieri' ; the grenade is also present on the shoulder of the crew of the piece launcher.

The non-commissioned officers and gunners mounted conductors carry the light cavalry saber hanging from his belt buckled beneath his tunic.

For the non-commissioned officers armed with pistols cavalry model 1850 is distributed equipment intended for such weapons (model of the dragons): blackened leather pouch en et-door in white leather pouch that hangs wand gun.

In the regiment 'Racchettieri' i ​​'Vormeister' and the crew launchers are equipped cona the pouch line infantry.

In addition, the artillery are distributed fatigue cap (cap camping) light blue thread of scarlet, the color of a vest tunic et, for unmounted, white linen pants for service in the neighborhoods (the latter not provided for troops on foot).

the material

In the middle of the 800 smooth-bore guns are pretty much the same as the 18th century. It 'true that the old material was about to be replaced by the so-called system' by project 'which, inter alia, introduced axles of iron in place of those of wood and a wider roadway that ensured a better stability, but the mouths from fire bronze still remained smooth-bore.

In 1859, however, the old material artillery did not have much to suffer from a greater range of rifled guns Hitte The French system. The broken terrain, with limited visibility, which mostly occurred firefights, most favored the use of the batteries 'brigade' (six guns and two howitzers) often split in half batteries, or more frequently in sections from two pieces. In this way, the simple gunner was able to stand out in the course of the war.

In any confrontation systematically overwhelmed by the Allies Franco-Piedmontese, the Austrian infantry was saved from disaster more than once from their artillery. A Montebello, Magenta, Solferino, traditions which required to fight on the front line 'looking the enemy in the eyes' were observed to such an extent that three artillery officers were granted the coveted Order of Maria Theresa. A Magenta, against the grenadiers of the Guard, the crew of the howitzer first lieutenant Kleinert undertake coolly directing a deadly fire on an enemy now in just a few meters away. "Look a little 'how to fly in the air Berrettoni" exclaims the pointer observing the effect of the shots went to sign ...

A Solferino battery Neubauer is so threatened that the pieces placed the wings are forced to turn around the hips to hold the attackers have now reached close. About the annihilation of the brigade Szabo in Palestro, the 7th Battery of the 7th regiment had the bad luck of being in front of him the 3rd Zouaves Regiment French ... Its commander, Captain Hausenblas, took the path of imprisonment, reported comments of General Canrobert about the incompetence of the Austrian generals in Palestro: "But gentlemen, what do you jumped in mind to attack us today? Did you not know that the French army met here with that of Piedmont? Definitely you have been guided very badly. "

4 foot batteries from 6 pounds (from # 1 to # 4):
6 cannons and 2 howitzers courts to 7 pounds
4 officers, 174 soldiers, 118 horses, 23 wagons
3 batteries feet by 12 pounds (from # 5 to # 7):
6 cannons and 2 howitzers long by 7 pounds
4 officers, 207 soldiers, 139 horses, 24 wagons
5 batteries on horseback from 6 pounds (from # 8 to # 12):
6 cannons and 2 howitzers courts to 7 pounds
4 officers, 196 soldiers, 164 horses, 33 wagons
In war horse # 13 battery, battery howitzers long by 7 pounds # 14
18 batteries of 6 pounds (from # 1 to # 18)
8 devices launcher on a tripod
4 officers, 151 soldiers, 122 horses, 24 wagons
In war: N ° 2 new batteries 19:20

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