It was the most humiliating defeat ever of white men being defeated by black men. it sent the ranking of the land of the garibaldini on the road to derision but the italians died bravely and to the last man. .
The three leading Italian brigades had become separated during their overnight march and at dawn were spread across several miles of very difficult terrain. Their sketchy maps caused Albertone to mistake one mountain for Kidane Meret, and when a scout pointed out his mistake, Albertone advanced directly into Ras Alula's position.
these kings african rifles by cherilea or lone star could be reworked into italian colonial troops
Unbeknownst to General Baratieri, Emperor Menelik knew his troops had exhausted the ability of the local peasants to support them and had planned to break camp the next day (2 March).
The Emperor had risen early to begin prayers for divine guidance when spies from Ras Alula, his chief military advisor, brought him news that the Italians were advancing. ALPINI HELMET
The Emperor summoned the separate armies of his nobles and with the Empress Taytu beside him, ordered his forces forward. Negus Tekle Haymanot commanded the right wing, Ras Alula the left, and Rasses Makonnen and Mengesha the center, with Ras Mikael at the head of the Oromo cavalry; the Emperor and his consort remained with the reserve.
The Ethiopian forces positioned themselves on the hills overlooking the Adwa valley, in perfect position to receive the Italians, who were exposed and vulnerable to crossfire.
domenicoantonio rea defends the guns to the last
Albertone's askari brigade was the first to encounter the onrush of Ethiopians at 6:00, near Kidane Meret,[ where the Ethiopians had managed to set up their mountain artillery (40-42 Russian's mobile guns and some Russian's officers of the volunteers).
His heavily outnumbered askaris held their position for two hours until Albertone's capture, and under Ethiopian pressure the survivors sought refuge with Arimondi's brigade. ALPINI BADGE
Arimondi's brigade beat back the Ethiopians who repeatedly charged the Italian position for three hours with gradually fading strength until Menelik released his reserve of 25,000 Shewans and swamped the Italian defenders. Two companies of Bersaglieri who arrived at the same moment could not help and were cut down.
Dabormida's Italian brigade had moved to support Albertone but was unable to reach him in time. Cut off from the remainder of the Italian army, Dabormida began a fighting retreat towards friendly positions. ALPINI HELMET ANOTHER VIEW
However, he inadvertently marched his command into a narrow valley where the Oromo cavalry under Ras Mikael slaughtered his brigade, while shouting Ebalgume! Ebalgume! ("Reap! Reap!").
ARTILLERYMAN'S HAT OF THE 7TH MOUNTAIN BATTERY
Dabormida's remains were never found, although his brother learned from an old woman living in the area that she had given water to a mortally wounded Italian officer, "a chief, a great man with spectacles and a watch, and golden stars".
The remaining two brigades under Baratieri himself were outflanked and destroyed piecemeal on the slopes of Mount Belah.
ITALIAN ARTILLERY KEPI WITH CLOTH COVER
Menelik watched as Gojjam forces under the command of Tekle Haymonot made quick work of the last intact Italian brigade. By noon, the survivors of the Italian army were in full retreat and the battle was over.
PEOPLE LEARN LITTLE FROM THEIR OWN STRUGGLES FOR LIBERATION. THE ISRAELIS , AMERICANS AND ITALIANS WERE PERFECT EXAMPLES